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寧波材料所在高分子復合材料3D打印方面取得進展

文章來源:寧波材料技術與工程研究所   發布時間:2019-05-10  【字號:     】  

  隨著科技的不斷發展進步,3D打印技術作為一種全新的數字化模擬制造技術應運而生并迅速發展。其中,熔融沉積技術具有設備簡單、工藝潔凈、運行成本低且不產生過多加工殘留物等優點,被廣泛應用于快速原型和教育等領域。但現有的熔融沉積材料主要以ABS和PLA等通用塑料為主,需要針對工業產品制造開發適合高強度工程塑料等材料的3D打印成型技術。

  中國科學院寧波材料技術與工程研究所增材制造重點實驗室許高杰團隊針對高性能工程塑料3D打印技術開展了一系列研究工作。選取了具有高堅韌度和抗疲勞特性的半晶態尼龍12和高強度聚醚酰亞胺作為基體,研究了熔體流變特性對熔融長絲燒結特性的影響,對高性能工程塑料的3D打印工藝參數、工業可用性進行了研究。研究發現,半結晶高分子具有較好的流變性能和快速燒結特性,在合適的打印條件下能夠獲得接近注塑件的力學性能。拓展了高溫高強度工程塑料在熔融沉積技術中的應用(Rapid Prototyping Journal, 2017, 23(6), 973–982. High Performance Polymers, 2019, 31(1): 97-106)。

  由于熔融沉積層層疊加成型過程產生的空隙會不可避免地降低3D打印產品的機械強度,嚴重制約了熔融沉積技術的應用推廣。研究人員在工藝研究的基礎上,開發了尼龍12/氧化石墨烯、尼龍12/碳纖維復合材料。研究發現兩種填料在熔融沉積成型過程中可實現取向分布,不僅有效提高了產品的機械強度(GNPs 7%和CFs 251.1%),還能夠對產品熱導率(提高51.4%)進行靈活調控(Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 2017, 134(39), 45332.; Materials & Design, 2018, 139: 283-292)。

  最近,研究人員以聚乳酸(PLA)為基體,以熱塑性聚氨酯(TPU)為填料,通過熔融沉積技術的整個加工流程實現了彈性體TPU原位成纖,纖維狀TPU的平均長度可以實現從67.24μm到103.72μm的精準調控。同時,TPU成纖有效改善了其與PLA基體的界面結合力。研究發現,3D打印形成的網格狀TPU可有效補償打印空隙對打印件力學強度的弱化效應,使產品的韌性達到甚至超過注塑水平。該熔融沉積原位纖維技術為制備高韌性聚乳酸復雜結構零件提供了簡便有效的方法(Macromolecular Materials and Engineering, 2019, 1900107)。

  以上工作得到國家自然科學基金(11574331, 11674335)和寧波市科技局(2016B10005, 2018A610009)的資助。

 

圖1 共混物熔融沉積成型流程圖

 

圖2 注塑(a)和打印(b)成型件中TPU的分布形貌

 

圖3 TPU含量和分布結構對制件沖擊強度的影響




(責任編輯:葉瑞優)

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